Tim D'Annecy

Powershell

#Powershell #Exchange

I got a request to create a Dynamic Distribution List/Group in Exchange that was automatically populated based on the users' office location.

The requestor stated that they do not want to manage any additional O365 objects. I know how to do this in Azure AD with a Dynamic Assignment, but needed to figure out how to do this in Exchange Online.

Luckily, it's pretty easy.

You'll need the Exchange Online Powershell module before running the command.

Import-Module ExchangeOnline 
Connect-ExchangeOnline
New-DynamicDistributionGroup -Name 'Raleigh Staff' -Alias 'Raleigh.Staff' -RecipientFilter "(RecipientTypeDetails -eq 'UserMailbox') -and (Office -eq 'Raleigh')"

It might take a few minutes, but after running that command, you'll see it update in the Exchange Online portal and the query will add users to the List/Group.

#Powershell #Windows #Networking

I have a client that is transitioning their network equipment from Fortigate to Meraki. Part of this transition is testing the Meraki Client VPN instead of the FortiClient application.

We found that that on first run, the FortiClient VPN app disables some services that are needed for the Meraki VPN connection to successfully authenticate. If users don't have Local Admin permissions, they are unable to make any changes to the services to fix the issue.

To work around this, I created a small PowerShell script that can be deployed through GPO or Intune. It stops all of the FortiClient services and processes and re-enables the services that Meraki's VPN uses. It also creates a transcript and stores the log to C:\Fix-MerakiVPN.log that you can use for troubleshooting.

Here's the script:

#Requires -Version 1
<#
.SYNOPSIS
  Closes and disables FortiClient VPN services and apps. Checks and configures Windows services to allow Meraki VPN connection.
.DESCRIPTION
  Closes and disables FortiClient VPN services and apps. Checks and configures Windows services to allow Meraki VPN connection.
.INPUTS
  None
.OUTPUTS
  Log file stored in C:\Fix-MerakiVPN.log
.NOTES
  Version:        1.0
  Author:         Tim D'Annecy
  Creation Date:  2022-06-07
  Purpose/Change: Initial script development
.EXAMPLE
  Fix-MerakiVPN.ps1 
#>

$ServicesToStop = 'FA_Scheduler'#, 'FMAPOService'
$ServicesToStart = 'PolicyAgent', 'IKEEXT'
$AppsToStop = 'FortiClient', 'FortiSettings', 'FortiSSLVPNdaemon', 'FortiTray'

function Fix-MerakiVPN {
  foreach ($App in $AppsToStop) {
    if (Get-Process -Name $App -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue) {
      Write-Host 'Application running. Stopping:' $App
      Stop-Process -Name $App -Force 
    }
    else {
      Write-Host 'OK: Application not running or not installed:' $App
    }
  }
  foreach ($service in $ServicesToStop) {
    if ((Get-Service $service -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue).status -eq 'Running') {
      Write-Host 'Service running. Stopping:' $service
      $ServicePID = (get-wmiobject win32_service | Where-Object { $_.name -eq $service }).processID
      Stop-Process $ServicePID -Force
      Set-Service $service -StartupType Disabled
    }
    else {
      Write-Host 'OK: Service not running or not installed:' $service
    }
  }
  foreach ($service in $ServicesToStart) {
    if ((Get-Service $service -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue).status -eq 'Running') {
      Write-Host 'OK: Service running:' $service
    }
    else {
      Write-Host 'Service not running. Starting:' $service
      Set-Service $service -StartupType Automatic -Status Running 
      Start-Service $service 
    }
  }
}

Start-Transcript -Path 'C:\Fix-MerakiVPN.log' -Append
Fix-MerakiVPN
Stop-Transcript

Discuss...

#Windows #Powershell

I received this error on a fresh Windows 10 install a machine provisioned by Autopilot.

I found a fix on this post [A] and wanted to paste out the Powershell command for future reference.

$WinRMClient = "HKLM:\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\WinRM\Client"
$Name = "AllowBasic"
$value = "1"
IF (!(Test-Path $WinRMClient)) {
   New-Item -Path $WinRMClient -Force | Out-Null
   New-ItemProperty -Path $WinRMClient -Name $name -Value $value -PropertyType DWORD -Force | Out-Null
} ELSE {
   New-ItemProperty -Path $WinRMClient -Name $name -Value $value -PropertyType DWORD -Force | Out-Null
}

Discuss...

#Azure #Powershell

If you have a ton of compute and storage resources in your Azure environment, it can be difficult to tell which managed disks are orphaned or not mounted to a virtual machine. This Microsoft Doc [A] has the AZ CLI command, but it's buried in a larger task to delete the found objects. This Docs page also doesn't have the Powershell equivalent and I prefer to use Powershell.

To find these disks, run one of these commands in a Cloud Shell or other Azure connected terminal:

AZ CLI:

az disk list --query '[?managedBy==`null`].[id]' -o tsv

Powershell:

Get-AzDisk | Where-Object {$_.ManagedBy -eq $null}

Discuss...

#Windows #Powershell

One of the companies I'm working with has an Intune installation package for Adobe Acrobat Pro DC version 15.007.20033, but seems to have an issue with signing in on any PC that gets the deployment. Even newly imaged computers running Windows 10 21H2 get the error.

The package was created in Intune as a regular Line of Business app using a freshly generated .msi file from the Adobe Admin console under the Packages tab:

To get the application rolled out: I created a security group in Azure Active Directory named “Adobe Acrobat Pro DC users” that is used for the following tasks (not in this order):

  1. Uninstalls Adobe Reader DC (This removal is to simplify the user experience opening .pdf files, but isn't needed for functionality)

  2. Provisions an Adobe Acrobat Pro DC license using a configuration in Enterprise Applications

  3. Installs the Adobe Acrobat Pro DC .msi file

After the Adobe Acrobat Pro DC installation is complete on a user's computer and on first run, the user is prompted to login with their Adobe account. Since these users are already provisioned, it should be an easy click through. When the user hits the signin page, however, an error message appears and doesn't let the user continue:

Update required: Your browser or operating system is no longer supported. You may need to install the latest updates to your operating system. Learn more.

This seems to be a bug and users are reporting the issue on the Adobe Community forums [A]. The post notes that the issue is with an older version of the file AASIapp.exe that is causing that update error message. To work around this, they provide some steps from Adobe Support that can be used to fix the issue.

I wanted to make this deployable in Intune, so I wrote the following script:

function Invoke-AdobeAcrobatDCFix {
    $DownloadURI = 'http://prdl-download.adobe.com/Framemaker/428037A8066D4558A7EF7D7D06CB5B72/1600836995996/AASIapp.exe'
    $DownloadDestination = 'C:\temp\AASIapp.exe'
    $AppDestination = 'C:\Program Files (x86)\Common Files\Adobe\OOBE\PDApp\P7'

    Invoke-WebRequest -Uri $DownloadURI -OutFile (New-Item -Path $DownloadDestination -Force)
    Copy-Item -Path $DownloadDestination -Destination $AppDestination -Force
}

Invoke-AdobeAcrobatDCFix

To get this working in your environment, follow these steps:

  1. Copy the script snippet above and paste it into a text editor. Save it as a .ps1 file.

  2. Open https://endpoint.microsoft.com/

  3. Navigate to Devices > Scripts > Add > Windows 10 and later:

  4. Move through the wizard to upload and configure your script deployment:

    1. Basics: Name it something you'll remember and add a description.

    2. Script settings: Upload the .ps1 file you saved earlier. Leave the other options on the default “No” setting.

    3. Assignments: Select the user group that you're using for the Adobe Acrobat Pro DC app deployment. In my environment, this is the “Adobe Acrobat Pro DC users” security group.

  5. Keep the Scripts tab open for a few seconds. After the upload message pops up, the deployment will begin to sync to devices:

You can check the deployment process on the PC by looking for the C:\temp\ folder or for a newer timestamp on the file at C:\Program Files (x86)\Common Files\Adobe\OOBE\PDApp\P7\AASIapp.exe:

If the script fails, you can check the Intune application log at C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\IntuneManagementExtension\Logs\AgentExecutor.log for Powershell error messages.

If Adobe decides to stop hosting the file, this process could stop working. You might want to download that .exe file and put it in a public container in an Azure Storage account.

I'm sure this script could be shorter and the process could be more streamlined (I'm thinking editing the .msi file), but it's working for me and doesn't require too much upkeep. After assigning a user the Adobe Acrobat Pro DC users security group, after a little bit of time, the user will have a fully working Adobe Pro installation.

I hope this helps!

Discuss...

#Windows #Powershell

Here's a single-line Powershell command to delete user profiles that are older than 6 months.

I got this from a Spiceworks community post [A] and I fixed the typos.

Get-WMIObject -class Win32_UserProfile | Where-Object {(!$_.Special) -and ($_.ConvertToDateTime($_.LastUseTime) -lt (Get-Date).AddDays(-183))} | Remove-WmiObject 

This command may take a few minutes to run, but you can watch the progress as your free space expands in File Manager.

If you change the AddDays(-183) to a different number, you can change the interval for when you want to clean up. Make sure you keep the negative symbol for days in the past.

Just putting this here for my notes.

Discuss...

#Powershell #Windows #networking

I found a great tool [A] that runs netstat to get the currently listening and active ports on the local machine while matching the process IDs with the process names.

This comes in handy when trying to troubleshoot potential firewall or other access issues on a machine.

Here's the code:

$netstat = netstat -aon | Select-String -pattern "(TCP|UDP)"
$processList = Get-Process

foreach ($result in $netstat) {
   $splitArray = $result -split " "
   $procID = $splitArray[$splitArray.length - 1]
   $processName = $processList | Where-Object {$_.id -eq $procID} |    select processname
   $splitArray[$splitArray.length - 1] = $procID + " " +      $processName.processname
   $splitArray -join " "
}

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#Powershell #Windows

A company I'm working for is decommissioning a Meraki firewall in the near future. With this piece of hardware gone, there would be no web content filtering for all users in the organization.

As a temporary workaround, I moved all of the existing URL blocks from the Meraki dashboard into a Group Policy Object that targets Chrome and Edge. When creating the policy, the Group Policy Management MMC tool only allows you to put one entry in at a time for the URL Blocking. I would need to copy and paste hundreds of entries to get this updated.

There has to be a faster way. I read through this post [A] and it gave me some information about updating a GPO generally. I tweaked it a bit and targeted both Chrome and Edge in my environment.

Here's how I did it.

ADMX template check

Before you can continue, make sure you have the ADMX files added to the Domain Controller.

I won't cover that in this post (basically download the files and copy over to \\domain.com\SYSVOL\domain.com\Policies\PolicyDefinitions and en-US folders), but check the following guides for deployment information:

When these ADMX templates are added, go to the next step.

Create a Group Policy Object

Now, let's create a GPO policy and change one option per app (Chrome or Edge).

Open the Group Policy Management MMC. Right click on the “Group Policy Objects” container/folder and select “New”:

In the popup, give your GPO a name that you'll remember. Keep the “Source Starter GPO” set to (none).

When that's created, move to the next step to define your blocked sites.

Create the URL list file

The Chromium documentation for this Group Policy Object [A] states that putting in a simple domain name of example.com will block all http and https requests to any subdomains and the root.

I created a list of URLs in Notepad with one entry on each line, like this example:

facebook.com
twitter.com
youtube.com

This was an easy copy and paste from the Meraki Group Policies page at Network Wide > Configure > Group Policies:

Run some Powershell commands

For these Powershell commands to run, first make sure you are able to connect to a writable Domain Controller. It might be easier to remote into the server and run the commands locally.

I would also recommend appending -whatif to the end of the Set-GPRegistryValue in the command below if you're not sure you've done everything correctly.

Also make sure to change the -name of your GPO to match the one you created in the first few steps.

For adding the URL blocks in Google Chrome, use this command:

Get-Content .\URLlist.txt | foreach {
     Set-GPRegistryValue -Name 'XXXyourGPOnameXXX' -ValueName $_ -Type String -Value $_ -Key "HKLM\Software\Policies\Google\Chrome\URLBlocklist"    
}

For adding the URL blocks in Microsoft Edge, use this command:

Get-Content .\URLlist.txt | foreach {
     Set-GPRegistryValue -Name 'XXXyourGPOnameXXX' -ValueName $_ -Type String -Value $_ -Key "HKLM\Software\Policies\Microsoft\Edge\URLBlocklist"    
}

Caveats

Running these Powershell commands can take a long time if you have a lot of entries. My final version had over 100 lines and took about 15 minutes to complete.

You can verify that this worked by opening the Group Policy Management Editor again and clicking on your Policy Object. Select the “Settings” tab. Click “Show All” at the right side and scroll down to the section labelled “Block access to a list of URLs”:

If you need to add/update or remove a URL from this list later on, right click on the Policy Object and select “Edit”. Navigate to the following location:

  • Chrome: Computer Configuration > Policies > Administrative Templates > Google Chrome > Block access to a list of URLs
  • Edge: Computer Configuration > Policies > Administrative Templates > Microsoft Edge > Block access to a list of URLs

From there, you can click on the “Show” button to make changes to each line.

Discuss...

#Exchange #Powershell

I was looking for some good documentation online on how to recall emails from user inboxes.

First, import and connect to the relevant Powershell modules and environments:

Install-Module ExchangeOnlineManagement
Import-Module ExchangeOnlineManagement
Connect-IPPSSession -UserPrincipalName XXX # Change this value to your account with Global Admin or Compliance Admin permissions

Next, create a new Compliance Search by defining your scope and query. For this example, I'm going to keep it simple by targeting all Exchange content and a subject line search:

# Change the subject line to the emails' subject line in question
New-ComplianceSearch -Name "New search" -ExchangeLocation All -ContentMatchQuery '(Subject:"Spammy email subject line")' | Start-ComplianceSearch

Depending on the size of your tenant, this may take a while, maybe a few hours. You can check the status of the search by running Get-ComplianceSearch

After the search status says 'Completed', the following command to purge and delete all instances of the email from your tenant:

New-ComplianceSearchAction -SearchName "New search" -Purge -PurgeType HardDelete

This command may take a while too, depending on the size of your tenant. You can check the status of the search action with the command Get-ComplianceSearchAction

That's it! You can see your results in the Microsoft Compliance center and a full audit log will be available through the portal.

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#Powershell #HyperV

I read a great post by Benjamin Armstrong [A] with a one-line Powershell command to list virtual machines in Hyper-V that have a missing or broken VHD disk.

This helped me do some weeding on some Hyper-V machines and clean up old/stale VMs.

get-vm | Get-VMHardDiskDrive | %{write-host $_.VMName.PadRight(40) ":: VHD Exists :: "-NoNewline; Test-Path $_.Path}

Just putting this here for my notes.

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